About the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests - Eligibility Determination

We use the WJ III Tests of Achievement to help assess students for learning disabilities and to
determine if they are eligible for special services
. The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act
(IDEA) is federal legislation that defines the terms under which students may be declared eligible for
special services. IDEA defines learning disability as a severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and
achievement in one or more areas (see chart below). The WJ III Tests of Achievement includes clusters
that directly parallel these IDEA areas and provide sound procedures for determining discrepancies
between a student's abilities and achievement in each area.

We have over
50 separate clinical tests in our office libraries to choose from when we do an assessment.
We use a variety of tests to measure different problems. This page describes only a very small subset of
the large number of clinical tests we can use to analyze and understand a person's potential, academic
performance level, attention and concentration levels and learning style.

We write an extensive report, 20+ pages, detailing all of the individual areas where the student requires
additional help. We also identify their learning style and learning strengths and explain and provide
evidence for why the student has a particular learning style.

Descriptions of WJ III Tests Administered for Comprehensive
Psycho-Educational Assessment

Verbal Comprehension measured aspects of The student's language development in spoken English language,
such as knowledge of vocabulary or the ability to reason using lexical (word) knowledge.

Visual-Auditory Learning required The student to learn, store, and retrieve a series of visual-auditory
associations. On this test of associative and meaningful memory, The student was asked to learn and recall rebuses
(pictographic representations of words).

Spatial Relations required The student to identify the two or three pieces that form a complete target shape, a
visualization-of-spatial-relationships task.

Sound Blending measured The student's skill in synthesizing language sounds (phonemes). The stutdent was
asked to listen to a series of syllables or phonemes and then to blend the sounds into a word.

Concept Formation measured The student's categorical reasoning ability. This test also measured The student's
flexibility in thinking. The student was presented with a complete stimulus set from which to derive the rule for each
item. Immediate feedback was provided
regarding the correctness of each response before a new item was presented.

Visual Matching measured an aspect of cognitive efficiency-- the speed at which The student can make visual
symbol discriminations. The student was asked to locate and circle the two identical numbers in a row of six
numbers. This task proceeded in difficulty from
single-digit numbers to triple-digit numbers and had a 3-minute time limit.

Numbers Reversed required The student to hold a span of numbers in immediate awareness (memory) while
performing a mental operation on it (reversing the sequence).

Incomplete Words measured auditory analysis and auditory closure, aspects of phonemic awareness and phonetic
coding. After hearing, from an audio recording, a word that has one or more phonemes missing, The student was
asked to identify the complete word.

Auditory Working Memory measured The student's short-term auditory memory span. She was asked to listen to
a series that contains digits and words, such as "dog, 1, shoe, 8, 2, apple." She was then asked to reorder the
information, repeating first the objects in sequential order and then the digits in sequential order. This task required
The student to hold information in immediate awareness, divide the information into two groups, and shift attentional
resources to the two new ordered sequences.

General Information provided an index of The student's general verbal knowledge. This test has two subtests. In
the first subtest, The student was asked, "Where would you find... (an object)?" In the second subtest, she was
asked, "What would you do with... (an object)?" The initial items involved objects that appear commonly in the
environment. The items became increasingly difficult as the selected objects become more unusual.

Retrieval Fluency measured The student's fluency of retrieval from stored knowledge. She was asked to name as
many examples as possible from a given category within a 1-minute time period. The task consisted of three
different categories: things to eat or drink, first names of people, and animals.

Picture Recognition measured visual memory of objects or pictures. The student's task was to recognize a subset
of previously presented pictures within a field of distracting pictures.

Auditory Attention measured an aspect of speech-sound discrimination-- the ability to overcome the effects of
auditory distortion or masking in understanding oral language. This is an auditory processing ability requiring
selective attention. The student's task was to listen to a word, while seeing four pictures, and then point to the
correct picture for the word. As the test progressed, the task increased in difficulty in two ways: the sound
discriminations became increasingly difficult and added background noise increased in intensity.

Analysis-Synthesis measured The student's ability to reason and draw conclusions from given conditions (or
deductive reasoning). She was given instructions on how to perform an increasingly complex procedure; she was
also given immediate feedback regarding the correctness of each response before a new item was presented.

Decision Speed measured The student's ability to make  correct conceptual decisions quickly. In each row, her
task was to locate quickly the two pictures that are most similar conceptually. This test had a 3-minute time limit.

Memory for Words measured The student's short-term auditory memory span. In this test, she was asked to repeat
lists of unrelated words in the correct sequence.

Rapid Picture Naming required naming facility, a form of cognitive fluency. This test measured The student's
speed of direct recall of information from her acquired knowledge. This test had a 2-minute time limit.

Planning provided information about the processes The student used to determine, select, or apply solutions to  
problems, such as forethought. On this test, The student was asked to trace a pattern without removing the pencil
from the paper or retracing any lines.

Pair Cancellation provided information about The student's ability to control interferences, sustain her attention,
and stay on task in a vigilant manner. In a 3-minute time period, she was asked to locate and mark a repeated
pattern as quickly as possible.

Letter-Word Identification measured The student's ability to identify letters and words. She was not required to
know the meaning of any word.

Reading Fluency measured The student's ability to quickly read simple sentences, decide if the statement is true,
and then circle Yes or No. She was asked to complete as many items as possible within a 3-minute time limit.

Story Recall measured aspects of The student's oral language ability including language development and
meaningful memory. The task required her to recall increasingly complex stories that were presented using an audio
recording. After listening to a passage, The student was asked to recall as many details of the story as she could

Understanding Directions required The student to listen to a  sequence of audio-recorded instructions and then
follow the directions by pointing to various objects in a picture.

Calculation measured The student's ability to perform mathematical computations.

Math Fluency measured The student's ability to solve simple addition, subtraction, and multiplication facts quickly.
She was presented with a series of simple arithmetic problems to complete in a 3-minute time limit.

Spelling measured The student's ability to print letters and spell words correctly.

Writing Fluency measured The student's skill in formulating and writing simple sentences quickly. She was
required to write sentences relating to a given stimulus picture that includes a set of three words.
This test had a 7-minute time limit.

Passage Comprehension measured The student's ability to understand what she read. Some items involved use
of pictures. The items became increasingly difficult and required The student to read a short passage and identify a
missing key word that made sense in the context of the passage.

Applied Problems measured The student's ability to analyze and solve math problems. To solve the problems, she
was required to listen to the problem, recognize the procedure to be followed, and then perform relatively simple
calculations. Because many of the problems
included extraneous information, The student needed to decide not only the appropriate mathematical operations to
use but also what information to include in the calculation.

Writing Samples measured The student's skill in writing responses to a variety of demands. She was asked to
produce written sentences that were evaluated with respect to the quality of expression. The student was not
penalized for any errors in basic writing skills, such
as spelling or punctuation.

Story Recall--Delayed measured aspects of The student's language development and meaningful memory using
previously presented stories. The task required her to recall the story elements that were previously presented in
Story Recall.
Dr. Stephen Mouton, Psychological Testing,  FAQs, ADHD, Attention Disorders, Learning Disorders, Dyslexia, Dysgraphia, Academic
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